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Wednesday, October 27, 2021

The Polish Kingdom During the XIVth Century

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On January 20, 1320, the coronation of Władysław Loketek was held in Kraków, for which new royal insignias were made, which served until the end of the 18th century. Since that time, Poland was revived as a kingdom. In 1332, the Crusaders captured Cuyavia.

During the reign of his son – Casimir III the Great (1333-1370), Poland was called the “Crown of the Polish Kingdom”. In 1323 the ruler of Rurikovich’s line ruled there in Chervonnaya Rus, the Galitsky throne passed to the Mazovian prince Boleslav Troidenovich, who, having no offspring, transferred his inheritance to the Polish king. In 1339, Casimir the Great reaffirmed the rights of Jan Luxemburg to the Silesian lands in Czech dependence, in which the Germanization process was in full swing. In 1343, “ perpetual peace ” was concluded with the Teutons, who returned the Pobzhin land and Kuyavia to the Poles, but retained East Pomerania. In the 1360s, a number of towns previously seized by Brandenburg withdrew to Poland; this made it possible to restore direct contact with Western Pomerania. In the autumn of 1349, Casimir III suddenly attacked Galician Russia, taking Galich and Lvov. After a series of trips to Chervonnaya Rus, Casimir in 1366 occupied Volyn and Podolia.

Poland under Casimir III

In the 1350s, the Pyotrkovo Statute was adopted for Greater Poland. For Little Poland, the Vislice Statute was subsequently introduced. In the middle of the 15th century, the legislation of Casimir III – “Full Statutes” was translated from Latin into Polish. In 1364, the university was founded – the Krakow Academy (from the XVII century – the Jagiellonian University ), which initially focused on the training of lawyers. Under Casimir, a common coin for Poland appeared – Polish penny. Casimir III allocated funds for the construction of more than fifty castles, most often made of brick.

During the 14th century, Hungary was an ally of Poland, in which, from 1308, the Anjou dynasty, which was in hostile relations with Czech Luxembourgians, ruled. With the suppression of the Piast dynasty in 1370, the Poles recognized the right to the Polish throne for the Hungarian king Louis I the Great, who was the nephew of Casimir III, and one of his daughters. After the death of Louis, the Polish mayors in 1383 abolished the personal union with Hungary, recognizing as their queen another daughter of Louis – Jadwig, which was married to the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jagiello. Poland and Lithuania were interested in alliance with each other, and on August 14, 1385 they concluded the Union of Krevo, according to which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was to be incorporated into the Polish state. In Kraków, Jagiello adopted Catholicism and married Jadviga, becoming King Vladislav II (1386–1434). Under the leadership of Jagail and his cousin Vitovt, Lithuania adopted Catholicism.

In Poland, XIII — XIV centuries, there were at least four waves of heresies. In the middle of the XIII century, flagellans appeared here, which walked around the cities and denounced the sinfulness of earthly existence. In the same century, with the help of the Inquisition, the church struggled against the spread of Waldensians in Poland (in 1315, hundreds of Waldenses in Silesia were burned at the stake). At the same time, communities of Begin and Begard appeared, denying the need for the existence of the clergy.

By the middle of the XIV century, the population of Krakow reached 14 thousand inhabitants, and Wroclaw – 17 thousand. Numerous places differed little from a village in their appearance. The largest mining centers for salt mining were copies of Wieliczka and Bochnia. In the area of Olkusz, mining of lead and silver was concentrated. Iron industry was widespread. There was an increase in the specialization of labor, as in Wroclaw at the beginning of the XIV century there were up to 30 artisan corporations. German colonization led to the acceleration of the addition of the guild system and the acquisition of self-government by the cities. Thanks to its influence and wealth, the German artisan-merchant elite took control in Krakow, Wroclaw, Gdansk and a number of other cities, mainly in western Poland.

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