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Friday, April 23, 2021

Prehistory and Ancient History of Morocco

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People inhabited the territory of Morocco from the early Paleolithic (700-500 thousand years ago); In the Casablanca area (Thomas I, Homo rhodesiensis ) and Salé ( Homo heidelbergensis ), tools of Achelean and Mousterian cultures were found here. The finds of the early Homo sapiens from Jebel Irhoud are dated from 240 – 35 thousand years to 378 – 30 thousand years. The age of 108 thousand years is the date of the skeleton of a child 7-8 years old, found in 2010 in Temara. In ancient times, the climatic conditions of the region were more favorable for the livelihoods of people. Venus from Tan-Tan dates back more than 300 thousand years ago. The bone knife almost 13 centimeters long from the Dar es-Soltan-1 cave, located near the Atlantic coast of Morocco, dates back to 90 thousand years ago. In 2007, separate decorated and perforated shells were found in the east of Morocco, of which, possibly, beads were made; their age is 82 thousand years. The Dar-es-Soltan II H5 skull is very similar to the Oase 2 skull from the Peshtera-ku-Oase Romanian cave.

In the Late Paleolithic, Morocco was part of the spread of the Aterian culture (possibly Neanderthal ), which was replaced in the Mesolithic by the Ibero-Mauritanian (Oranian) culture (11–9 thousand B.C.) close to the Crotoonian mechtoid subraces (Taralalt grotto). In 9-6 thousand B.C.  the Kapsi culture spread, whose speakers spoke Afro-Asiatic languages and migrated here from the east of the continent. During the Neolithic period, permanent settlements appeared, as well as agriculture and cattle breeding. In III – the beginning of II thousand B.C. Morocco was part of the zone of distribution of the culture of bell-shaped cups. During this period, the Proto-Berber ethnic community of the tribes of North Africa and Morocco, the ancient Libyans, was formed.

Antique Age

From the end of 2 thousand B.C. on the coast of Morocco, Phoenicians founded their colonies: Tingis (now Tangier), Shella (Rabat) Lixus (Larache), Mogador ( ssaouira) and others. They were active in trade with the ancient Berber tribes and had a great influence on their culture. From VI — V centuries. B.C. the northern part of Morocco was ruled by Carthage; local tribes paid tribute.

IV. B.C. in northern Morocco, there was a large federation of ancient Berber tribes, formed into the kingdom of Mauritania. It was created on the Carthaginian (Puni) basis of government and was dependent on Carthage. From the middle of the 2nd century B.C. Mauretania came under the influence of Rome; from the end of the 1st century B.C. has undergone a strong romanization. In the year 42 Mauretania is annexed to the Roman Empire, most of the territory of Morocco constituted the province of Mauretania, with its center in Tingis.

Among the urban population romanization occurred. In the Roman period, agricultural colonization was under way in northern Morocco; irrigation has been developed, they began to grow: wheat, olive trees, grapes and other crops. Major cities were built: Volubilis, Sale, Banaza and others. But the nomadic Berber tribes, nominally subordinate to Rome, were little influenced by Roman civilization. C III. Christianity spread throughout Morocco. In IV — V centuries. In northern Morocco, Donatist influence increased.

Epoch of the Great Migration

In 429, Tangier was captured by the Vandals, incorporating the northern part of Morocco into its kingdom. In 534, the Vandals were defeated by the Byzantines, Northern Morocco came under the control of the Byzantine Empire. But the local population raised frequent uprisings, not allowing Byzantium to firmly establish themselves in these lands. Most of the Berber tribes at that time were virtually independent.

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