Author: Alcibiades

Seven Sages of Greece and Their Influence in the World

The Seven Sages  or Seven Wise Men was the title given by ancient Greek tradition to seven early-6th-century BC philosophers, statesmen, and law-givers who were renowned in the following centuries for their wisdom. I. Cleobulus Cleobulus was the son of Evagoras and a citizen of Lindus in Rhodes. Clement of Alexandria called Cleobulus king of the Lindians, and Plutarch spoke of him as the tyrant. The letter quoted by Diogenes Laertius, in which Cleobulus invites Solonto Lindus as a democratic place of refuge from the tyrant Peisistratus in Athens, is undoubtedly a later forgery.  Cleobulus is also said to have studied philosophy in Egypt. He had a daughter, Cleobulina, who found fame as a poet, composing riddles in hexameter verse. Cleobulus is said...

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History of The Persian King Xerxes (486–465 b.c.e.)

King of Kings Xerxes was the oldest son of Darius I, and the offspring of the king’s first wife, Atossa, daughter of Cyrus II. Xerxes is familiar to students of the Bible since he appears in two books: in the book of Esther he is called by his Hebrew name Ahasuerus; and in the book of Ezra (4:6) he is mentioned in relation to an accusation lodged against the Jews in his reign. We have access to more than 20 Old Persian inscriptions written during his reign, but they do not add much to our knowledge of the man...

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The History of the City with Hundred Gates – Thebes, Egypt

Hundred- gated Thebes In the Iliad Homer famously described the city as “hundred- gated Thebes.” However, Thebes is better understood as an entire site that encompassed the east and west banks of the Nile, containing temples and palaces, the dwelling-places of the living and the everlasting homes of the dead. On the east bank were the temples of Amun at Karnak and Luxor. The ancient city lay to the east of the great temple of Karnak. As the temple expanded, the city had to move and was laid out on a grid plan. Across the river on the west...

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Zhang Qian, the Greatest Explorer in Ancient China

A diplomat for a Ancient Empire Zhang Qian was the greatest explorer in ancient China, having made two long journeys in 139 and 115 b.c.e.He was also an important diplomat for the Han emperor Wu. After suffering a major defeat at the hands of the nomadic Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu), Liu Bang (Liu Pang), founder of the Han dynasty (202 b.c.e.–220 c.e.) decided to appease his formidable northern neighbors by concluding the first of many Heqin (He-ch’in)treaties with them. The terms included gifts of large quantities of silver, food, and silks to the Xiongnu and the marriage of Han princesses to...

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Yamato Clan and State, The Birthplace of the Japanese Political State

The Yamato state The Yamato court is known as the birthplace of the Japanese political state. It is a term applied to the political system of the Kofun period but also its development and refinement in the late fifth to seventh centuries c.e. The Yamato state unified north Kyushu, Shikoku, and southern Honshu. The people were a clan-, or kinship- (uji), based society, where religion played an important part in controlling their lives, but during the Kofun period (the name given to the large key-shaped burial mounds of the time) powerful clan leaders and their families started to emerge...

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The Brutal History of the Visigoth Kingdom of Spain

Who were the Visigoths The earliest Visigoths were a Germanic group that alternated between opposing and serving the Roman Empire. Unlike some other Germanic tribes, the Visigoths retained elected leaders, never shifting to a fully hereditary kingship. The early Visigoths in the late Roman and early post-Roman periods, were Arian Christians—believing that the Son, Christ, had been created by the Father rather than being coeternal, opposing to what the Catholic Church believed. This meant that Visigothic kings could not be fully sure of the loyalty of the Catholic Church in their dominions, although they did not attempt to destroy...

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List of The 10 Oldest National Anthems in Our History

10. Der er et yndigt land – 1835 Der er et yndigt land, translated into English as There is a lovely country, is one of the national anthems of Denmark. The lyrics were written in 1819 by Adam Oehlenschläger and bore the motto “This corner of the earth smiles for me more than any other”. The music was composed in 1835 by Hans Ernst Krøyer. Later, Thomas Laub and Carl Nielsen each composed alternative melodies, but neither of them has gained widespread adoption, and today they are mostly unknown to the general population. 9. La Brabançonne – 1830 According to legend, the Belgian national anthem was written in September 1830, during the Belgian Revolution, by...

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The Gallic Chieftain Vercingetorix and His Famous Revolt Against Caesar

Who is this Vercingetorix ? Vercingetorix was a tribal chieftain of the Gallic Celtic Arverni tribe who attempted to stop the encroachment of Romans into his territory, Provence, in present day France, from 53 to 52 b.c.e. The Roman leader, Gaius Julius Caesar (100–44 b.c.e.), and his lieutenant Quintus Atius Labienus (100–45 b.c.e.), lost early engagements against Vercingetorix, who against all odds had managed to unite the generally warring tribes in Provence. This temporary alliance allowed Vercingetorix the upper hand. He retreated by using hit-and-run tactics within the natural boundaries of Provence that were unknown to the Romans. To...

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The Yellow Turban Rebellion – 21 Years of Struggle

The Yellow Turban Rebellion both a symptom and cause The Yellow Turban Rebellion was a messianic uprising (184–185 c.e.) that was both a symptom and cause of the fall of the Han dynasty (202 b.c.e.–220 c.e.). It occurred during the disastrous reign of Emperor Lin (r. 168–189 c.e.) Ascending the throne at age 12, Lin was under the control of the regent, who sought to eliminate the dominance of corrupt eunuchs with the assistance of the scholar-officials. However, the eunuchs acted first, killed the regent, purged the officials, and proceeded to rule unchecked during the next 20 years. They let...

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The History of Troy – Was it a Myth or Reality?

Troy in Homer’s Iliad The ancient city of Troy is the basis of Homer’s Iliad and site of the Trojan War. Troy lies in present-day western Turkey, at Canakale on the ancient Scamander River. Troy is known through the writings of the poet Homer and the stories of Heracles, Laomedon, King Priam, Hector, Paris, Achilles, the Trojan Horse, and Helen of Troy. Virgil vividly discussed the Mycenean  Greek sacking of Troy in his book the Aeneid. The events that Homer reported as taking place in Troy occurred around 1200 b.c.e., and he wrote and sang them around 800 b.c.e....

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