X. The Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance. It existed for almost 600 years from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the grant of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002. Extending for about 10.4 million km2

IX. The Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan, was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China and lasted from 1271–1368 C.E. Extending about  11 million km2

VIII. The Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate, also spelled Omayyad, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan ( 644–656 C.E), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War. Syria remained the Umayyads’ main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The Umayyad Caliphate lasted from 661–750 C.E. Extending for about 11.1 million km2

VII. The Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad’s youngest uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.They ruled as caliphs, for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE. They lasted from 750–1258 C.E. Extending for about 11.1 million km2

VI. The French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the “first colonial empire”, that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, and the “second colonial empire”, which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830. The second empire came to an end after the loss of bitter wars in Vietnam (1955) and Algeria (1962), and peaceful decolonization elsewhere after 1960. The French colonial empire lasted from 1534–1980 C.E. Extending for about 11.5 million km2

V. The Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire  was one of the largest empires in history. It reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs, through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon in the 18th century, when it was the largest empire in the world. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets. The Spanish Empire lasted 1492–1975 C.E. It’s greatest extent being 13.7 million km2

IV. The Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Qing Empire by itself or the Manchu dynasty by foreigners, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It’s greatest extent being 14.7 million km2

III.The Russian Empire

One of the largest empires in world history, stretching over three continents. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon’s ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south. It lasted from 1721–1917 C.E. It’s greatest extent being 22.8 million km2

II.The Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, and the Iranian plateau, and westwards as far as the Levant and Arabia. Lasting from 1206–1368 C.E. It’s greatest extent being 24 million km2

 

I. The British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power.By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people,and by 1920, it covered 35 million km2. At the peak of its power, the phrase “the empire on which the sun never sets” was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.